The Monument,designed by Sir Christopher Wren, was erected sometime between 1671 and 1677. It commemorates the Great Fire of London in 1666. In all, there are 311 steps to the top of the structure where you can step out onto the viewing platform for a 360 degree beautiful view of the City of London. A certificate of completion is awarded to those who make it to the top and back alive!
"The Monument to the Great Fire of London"</b>, commonly known as The Monument is a 202 feet (about 61 meters) tall Roman doric column in London, near the north of London Bridge. Located at the junction of Monument Street and Fish Street Hill, it is 61 meters from where the Great Fire of London started in the year 1666.
It was designed by Christopher Wren and Robert Hooke. The west side of the base shows an emblematical sculpture designed by Caius Gabriel Cibber; Its height is a measure of the landmark's distance from the site of Thomas Farynor, shop of the baker of the King in Pudding Lane, from where the fire began. When constructed, (from 1671 to 1677) it was the tallest stone column in the world.
One can reach the top of the monument by climbing up the 311 steps. A cage was added in the 19th century at the top of the Monument to prevent people from jumping off, after six people committed suicide between 1788 and 1842.
Wren and Hooke's architectural was built to double as a scientific instrument. It's central shaft is meant to be used as a zenith telescope and for gravity and pendulum experiments. It connects to an underground lab for observers (can be accessed from the ticket booth nowadays).
As is clear, the Monument tube station is also named after the monument.
The Golden Boy of Pye Corner (which is another monument) marks the point where the fire stopped.