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Elizabeth Garrett Anderson applied to numerous universities, and was rejected by all of them except Middlesex Hospital in London, where she studied briefly before being excluded. The Society of Apothecaries had to be threatened with legal action in order for her to take her exams, but in 1865 Anderson became the first woman in Britain to qualify as a doctor. Her perseverance paved the way for the acceptance of women in the practice of medicine.
Other pioneering female physicians include the psychoanalysts Anna Freud and Melanie Klein, and the ophthalmologist Ida Mann.
Rosalind Franklin performed vital X-ray work on DNA molecules. Her research proved crucial to Crick and Watson’s discovery of the structure of DNA, for which they won the Nobel Prize in 1962.